Heidi Makrinioti, Kohei Hasegawa, John Lakoumentas, Paraskevi Xepapadaki, Maria Tsolia,Jose A. Castro-Rodriguez, Wojciech Feleszko, Tuomas Jartti, Sebastian L. Johnston, Andrew Bush, Vasiliki Papaevangelou, Carlos A. Camargo Jr., Nikolaos G. Papadopoulos


Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of bronchiolitis. RSV-induced bronchiolitis has been associated with preschool wheeze and asthma in cohort studies where the comparison groups consist of healthy infants. However, recent studies identify rhinovirus (RV)–induced bronchiolitis as a potentially stronger risk factor for recurrent wheeze and asthma.


This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to compare the associations of RSV- and RV-induced bronchiolitis with the development of preschool wheeze and childhood asthma.


We performed a systematic search of the published literature in five databases by using a MeSH term-based algorithm. Cohort studies that enrolled infants with bronchiolitis were included. The primary outcomes were recurrent wheeze and asthma diagnosis. Wald risk ratios and odds ratios (ORs) were estimated, along with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Individual and summary ORs were visualized with forest plots.


There were 38 studies included in the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis of eight studies that had data on the association between infant bronchiolitis and recurrent wheeze showed that the RV-bronchiolitis group were more likely to develop recurrent wheeze than the RSV-bronchiolitis group (OR 4.11; 95% CI 2.24–7.56). Similarly, meta-analysis of the nine studies that had data on asthma development showed that the RV-bronchiolitis group were more likely to develop asthma (OR 2.72; 95% CI 1.48–4.99).


This is the first meta-analysis that directly compares between-virus differences in the magnitude of virus-recurrent wheeze and virus-childhood asthma outcomes. RV-induced bronchiolitis was more strongly associated with the risk of developing wheeze and childhood asthma.

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