Reasons for non-vaccination: Parental vaccine hesitancy and the childhood influenza vaccination school pilot programme in England.

To significantly decrease the burden of influenza in England, influenza vaccination coverage in children needs to be >60%. Hence, it is important to understand the reasons why parents are not vaccinating their children and to tailor the communication and immunisation programme accordingly. Our finding that a third of parents, who did not consent to their child being vaccinated as part of the school programme, had actually vaccinated their child elsewhere, intended to have their child vaccinated, or had not vaccinated them due to medical reasons, illustrates the importance of including additional questions or data sources when investigating under-vaccination.


Paterson, P., T. Chantler, and H.J. Larson

Vaccine, 2018. 36(36): p. 5397-5401

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Maternal Vaccination as an Essential Component of Life-Course Immunization and Its Contribution to Preventive Neonatology

Maternal immunisation schedules are increasingly coming under the spotlight as part of the development of lifetime immunisation programmes for the role that they play in improving maternal, foetal, and neonatal health. Maternally-acquired antibodies are critical in protecting infants during the first months of their lives. Maternal immunisation was previously overlooked owing to concerns regarding vaccinations in this untested and high-risk population but is now acknowledged for its potential impact on the outcomes in many domains of foetal and neonatal health, aside from its maternal benefits. This article highlights the role that maternal immunisation may play in reducing infections in preterm and term infants. It explores the barriers to antenatal vaccinations and the optimisation of the immunisation uptake. This review also probes the part that maternal immunisation may hold in the reduction of perinatal antimicrobial resistance and the prevention of non-infectious diseases. Both healthcare providers and expectant mothers should continue to be educated on the importance and safety of the appropriate immunizations during pregnancy. Maternal vaccination merits its deserved priority in a life-course immunization approach and it is perhaps the only immunization whereby two generations benefit directly from a single input. We outline the current recommendations for antenatal vaccinations and highlight the potential advances in the field contributing to “ preventive neonatology&rdquo.


Bergin, N., J. Murtagh, and R.K. Philip

Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2018. 15(5)

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Meningococcal Group B Vaccine For The Prevention Of Invasive Meningococcal Disease Caused By Neisseria meningitides Serogroup B

Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is a major public health concern because of its high case fatality, long-term morbidity, and potential to course with outbreaks. IMD caused by Neisseria meningitides serogroup B has been predominant in different regions of the world like Europe and only recently broadly protective vaccines against B serogroup have become available. Two protein-based vaccines, namely 4CMenB (Bexsero®) and rLP2086 (Trumenba®) are currently licensed for use in different countries against MenB disease. These vaccines came from a novel technology on vaccine design (or antigen selection) using highly specific antigen targets identified through whole-genome sequence analysis. Moreover, it has the potential to confer protection against non-B meningococcus and against other Neisserial species such as gonococcus. Real-world data on the vaccine-use are rapidly accumulating from the UK and other countries which used the vaccine for control of outbreak or as part of a routine immunization program, reiterating its safety and efficacy. Additional data on real-life effectiveness, long-term immunity, and eventual herd effects, including estimates on vaccine impact for cost-effectiveness assessment are further needed. Given the predominance of MenB in Europe and other parts of the world, these new vaccines are crucial for the prevention and public health control of the disease and should be considered.


Irene Rivero-Calle,Peter Francis Raguindin,Jose Gómez-Rial, Carmen Rodriguez-Tenreiro, and Federico Martinón-Torres

Infect Drug Resist, 2019. 12: p. 3169-3188

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Cohort study design for estimating the effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccines in real-time based on register data: The Finnish example

This paper presents the principles of implementing register-based cohort studies as currently applied for real-time estimation of influenza vaccine effectiveness in Finland. All required information is retrieved from computerised national registers and deterministically linked via the unique personal identity code assigned to each Finnish resident. The study cohorts comprise large subpopulations eligible for free seasonal influenza vaccination as part of the National Vaccination Programme. The primary outcome is laboratory-confirmed influenza. Each study subject is taken to be at risk of experiencing the outcome from the onset of the influenza season until the first of the following three events occur: outcome, loss to follow up or end of the season. Seasonal influenza vaccination is viewed as time-dependent exposure. Accordingly, each subject may contribute unvaccinated and vaccinated person-time during their time at risk. The vaccine effectiveness is estimated as one minus the influenza incidence rate ratio comparing the vaccinated with the unvaccinated within the study cohorts. Data collection in register-based research is an almost fully automated process. The effort, resources and the time spent in the field are relatively small compared to other observational study designs. This advantage is pivotal when vaccine effectiveness estimates are needed in real-time. The paper outlines the possible limitations of register-based cohort studies. It also addresses the need to explore how national and subnational registers available in the Nordic countries and elsewhere can be utilised in vaccine effectiveness research to guide decision making and to improve individual health as well as public health.


Baum U, Auranen K, Kulathinal S, Syrjänen R, Nohynek H, Jokinen J.

Scand J Public Health, 2018: p. 1403494818808635

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Contemporary vaccination policy in the European Union: tensions and dilemmas

This paper seeks to contribute to a more nuanced discourse on vaccination policy. Current polarization between either mandatory and entirely voluntary is misleading, as virtually all immunization programs feature a combination of instruments that comprise mandatory and voluntary elements. We develop this argument by presenting five case studies from the European Union (EU). By systematically acknowledging the nuances of political and institutional varieties, we build the case for reframing the terms of the debate in the EU and beyond.


Katharina T. Paul & Kathrin Loer

Journal of Public Health Policy, 40, pages166–179(2019)

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Report: Of virality and viruses: The anti-vaccine movement and Social Media

Renée DiResta argues that a confluence of three factors – mass consolidation of audiences onto a handful of social networks; the adoption of curatorial algorithms as a primary means of disseminating and engaging with content; and the ease of precision targeting of users via the leveraging of proprietary profiles built from their own media consumption signals – has resulted in an information ecosystem that can be manipulated by a variety of actors with relative ease. This paper looks at the social media presence of one specific group of actors, American anti-vaccine activists, as a case study to better understand strategies, tactics, and impact, as well as counter-messaging and interventions.


Renée DiResta

NAPSNet Special Reports, November 08, 2018

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